Jedan od najvećih izazova roditeljstva u digitalnom dobu je praćenje i usmjeravanje djetetovog korištenja digitalne tehnologije, odnosno korištenja pametnih telefona, tableta, računala i drugih digitalnih uređaja. Mnogi se roditelji pitaju na koji način i u kojoj mjeri omogućiti, a opet s druge strane i ograničiti djeci pristup različitim uređajima i sadržajima. Jedan od načina, spomenut i na našoj stranici, su mobilne aplikacije kojima je moguće kontrolirati i nadzirati vrijeme koje dijete provodi u korištenju digitalnih uređaja, ali i sadržaje kojima je izloženo. No, praćenje i usmjeravanje djeteta prilikom korištenja digitalnih uređaja puno je više od kontrole i nadzora te se često objašnjava teorijom roditeljske medijacije.
Teorija roditeljske medijacije pomaže nam u shvaćanju toga na koji način roditelji omogućuju djetetu korištenje i pristup digitalnoj tehnologiji te kako posreduju prilikom tog korištenja (Clark, 2011). Teorija se bavi načinima na koje roditelji komuniciraju s djecom u vezi digitalne tehnologije kako bi ublažili negativne i potaknuli pozitivne učinke za koje vjeruju da korištenje medija ima na djecu. Roditeljska medijacija su sve strategije koje roditelji koriste za kontrolu, nadzor i/ili tumačenje sadržaja djetetu (Warren, 2001). Tri su tipa roditeljske medijacije: restriktivna medijacija, aktivna medijacija i zajedničko korištenje (Nathanson, 1999; Warren, 2003). Restriktivna medijacija se odnosi na postupke koji uključuju ograničavanje vremena korištenja (npr. korištenje uređaja pola sata dnevno) ili ograničavanje sadržaja kojem dijete pristupa putem uređaja. Aktivna se medijacija odnosi na raspravu i razgovor roditelja i djeteta o medijskim sadržajima i aktivnostima na uređajima. Zajedničko korištenje, odnosi se na roditeljsko i dječje zajedničko korištenje uređaja koje može imati više svrha (npr. zabava, učenje).
Mnoge obitelji, ovisno o tome na koji način odgajaju svoju djecu te mišljenje, stavove i znanje o digitalnoj tehnologiji, postavljaju određena pravila o korištenju uređaja u vlastitoj obitelji. Postavljanje pravila odnosi se na restriktivnu medijaciju, no komunikacijom roditelja i djece i zajedničkim postavljanjem pravila ta medijacija postaje aktivna. Roditelji svoju medijaciju mogu učiniti i zajedničkom na način da s djetetom dogovore pravila o obiteljskom, dječjem i zajedničkom (ne)korištenju uređaja, kao što je, na primjer, ne korištenje uređaja tijekom zajedničkog ručka za sve članove obitelji.
Budući da su se najučinkovitijima pokazala upravo pravila nastala u dogovoru i komunikaciji roditelja i djece, predlažemo da učinite tu aktivnost zabavnom i izradite ugovor ili plakat pravila koji ćete postaviti u vaš dom, a koji će podsjećati vas i vašu djecu na odgovorno i sigurno ponašanje tijekom korištenja medija i uređaja digitalne tehnologije.
Dajemo prijedlog plakata s pravilima za dječje korištenje.
Izvori:
Clark, L. S. (2011). Parental mediation theory for the digital age. Communication theory, 21(4), 323-343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2011.01391.x
Nathanson, A. I. (1999). Identifying and explaining the relationship between parental mediation and children’s aggression. Communication research, 26(2), 124-143. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365099026002002
Warren, R. (2001). In words and deeds: Parental involvement and mediation of children’s television viewing. The Journal of Family Communication, 1(4), 211-231. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327698JFC0104_01
Warren, R. (2003). Parental mediation of preschool children’s television viewing. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47(3), 394-417. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4703_5
[PARENTAL MEDIATION AND RULES OF DIGITAL DEVICES USE]
One of the biggest challenges of parenting in the digital age is monitoring and directing the children’s use of digital technology, or the use of smartphones, tablets, computers, and other digital devices. Many parents struggle how and to what extent to enable, and yet on the other hand restrict the children’s access to a variety of devices and content. One of the ways mentioned on our site is mobile applications that can control and monitor the time a child spends using digital devices, but also the content to which the child is exposed. But tracking and directing a child when using digital devices is much more than control and is often described by the parental mediation theory.
Parental mediation theory helps us understand how parents enable their children to use and access digital technology and how they mediate that use (Clark, 2011). The theory describes how parents communicate with children about digital technology to mitigate the negative and alter the positive effects they believe the use of the media has on children (Warren, 2001). There are three types of parental mediation: restrictive mediation, active mediation, and co-viewing (Nathanson, 1999; Warren, 2003). Restrictive mediation refers to behaviors that include limiting the time of use (e.g., using the device for half an hour a day) or limiting the content that the child is accessing. Active mediation refers to the discussion and conversation between parents and children about media content that can be both positive and negative. Co-viewing happens when children and parents use devices together for different purposes (e.g., entertainment, learning).
Many families, depending on how they raise their children and their opinions, attitudes, and knowledge about digital technology, set certain rules about the use of digital technology/devices in their own family. As can be inferred, rules of digital technology use refer to restrictive mediation, but through the communication between parents and children and the joint setting of rules, this mediation becomes active. You can also make your mediation co-viewing by jointly setting family rules for screen time, such as, not using the device during a shared family lunch.
Since the rules created in the agreement and communication between parents and children proved to be the most effective, we suggest that you make this activity fun and create a contract or a poster of rules that you will place in your home and that will remind you and your children of responsible and safe behavior while media and digital technology devices are in use.
Below is a suggested poster with some rules for children’s use.
References:
Clark, L. S. (2011). Parental mediation theory for the digital age. Communication theory, 21(4), 323-343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2011.01391.x
Nathanson, A. I. (1999). Identifying and explaining the relationship between parental mediation and children’s aggression. Communication research, 26(2), 124-143. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365099026002002
Warren, R. (2001). In words and deeds: Parental involvement and mediation of children’s television viewing. The Journal of Family Communication, 1(4), 211-231. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327698JFC0104_01
Warren, R. (2003). Parental mediation of preschool children’s television viewing. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47(3), 394-417. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4703_5